For many years, Icelandic whalers hunted endangered fin whales as well as minke whales. Whilst the fin whale meat was exported to Japan, most of the minke whale meat was served to tourists.
The good news is that there was no whaling in the 2019, 2020 or 2021 seasons. Minke whaling officially ended in 2020. However, in the summer of 2022 whalers began to hunt fin whales once more.
In 1982, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) agreed to stop all commercial whaling by 1986. Unlike other whaling nations, Iceland did not take out an ‘objection’, but once the ban was in place, continued a small “scientific whaling” programme, hunting a few dozen whales each year until 1989.
Iceland abruptly left the IWC in 1992 but rejoined in 2002, this time taking out a ‘reservation’ against the ban. Iceland resumed commercial whaling in October 2006, awarding itself a commercial quota to kill fin and minke whales. This move was furiously disputed by many countries angry at what they regarded as Icelandʼs attempt to bypass international regulations.
Between 2006 and 2018, a total of 852 fin whales were killed. This statistic is all the more tragic, given that the fin whale is the second largest animal on the planet. Each whale is special in its own right of course, but a creature this size also plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the marine ecosystem. As if this was not enough, the fin whale is listed as ‘endangered’ by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature).
Whaling as part of Iceland’s proud ‘seafaring tradition’
In Iceland, much support for whaling, especially amongst older people and those living in coastal and rural areas, is based upon the belief that whaling is akin to fishing and therefore, part of Iceland’s proud heritage as a seafaring nation which harvests its marine resources. The animal welfare issues around whaling and the lack of market demand have until recently, not featured much in the national psyche.
The whalers, supported by pro-whaling politicians and other interest groups, have long exploited this perceived link between whaling and heritage, further strengthened by the misconception that whales must be culled as they eat too many fish.
Encouraging support for live whales
Dispelling this myth is important, as is the need to create much wider visibility for our Green Whale concept.
Promoting responsible whale watching is also an extremely important argument against continued whaling: whales have an intrinsic right to life, and whaling is cruel and inhumane. It is an undeniable fact that every whale killed is one fewer to be enjoyed by whale watchers. Fortunately, Iceland has a very successful whale watch industry and the operators themselves have often spoken out bravely against the hunts.
Most Icelanders regard themselves as environmentalists but until recently, have tended to support local projects to protect habitats or species. Given the massive global movement in response to the climate emergency, it is both timely and vitally important that the Green Whale concept is much more widely discussed and accepted by Icelanders.
Facts about whaling in Iceland
- Icelandic whalers have slaughtered more than 1,700 whales (fin, minke and sei whales) since the global ban on commercial whaling came into force in 1986.
- Iceland refuses to recognise the ban and currently allocates its whalers a quota to kill endangered fin whales - the second largest creature on Earth - as well as minke whales.
- Contrary to popular belief, whale meat is not a traditional dish and local people rarely eat it. A 2018 survey revealed that only 2% of the population regularly purchases whale meat.
- Most of the minke whale catch is served up in restaurants to tourists.
- Almost all of the fin whale catch is exported to Japan.
- Demand for whale meat is declining globally, forcing whalers to dream up ever more desperate uses for whale products, including dog treats, iron supplements and even a so-called flavouring for beer!
- Whale watching is increasingly popular. Around one in five of the 2.2 million tourists who visited Iceland in 2017 took a whale watch trip (more than six times the Icelandic population!)
Iceland’s recent whaling history
2015: 155 fin whales were hunted and 29 minke whales were killed.
2016 and 2017: no fin whales were hunted after the whalers fell out with Japan over its meat testing methods but 46 minke whales were killed in 2016, and a further 17 minkes were hunted in 2017.
2018: We had hoped that Hvalur hf. CEO, Kristjan Loftsson, now in his mid 70s and given the many difficulties offloading his fin whale meat in recent years, would choose to give up whaling for good. However, the first fin whales were landed on June 22nd and by the end of the season, 146 fin whales had been killed, including a dozen pregnant whales and at least two rare blue/fin whale hybrids. We asked the Icelandic authorities to confirm that the consignment excluded meat from the hybrid whales, particularly since regulations prevent Japan from importing meat from a blue/fin whale hybrid; but observers at the scene said that it would have been almost impossible to separate out the meat as several whales were processed at once. Six minke whales were also slaughtered.
2019: In February, the Icelandic fisheries minister allocated a quota of 209 fin whales and 217 minke whales to be hunted each year until 2023. However, in June that year, Iceland's fin whaling company, Hvalur hf, announced that it would not be carrying out any whaling and the minke whalers also stayed in port.
2020: In April 2020, towards the start of the global pandemic, reports emerged that Hvalur hf. would not be fin whaling. Around the same time, Gunnar Bergmann Jonsson, managing director of Icelandic minke whaling company IP-Utgerd, told media that it was no longer profitable to hunt for minke whales in Icelandic waters and he would be ceasing whaling for good.
2021: By June, given the lack of announcements regarding any resumption of fin whaling and last year’s closure of the minke whaling company, it was evident that no whales would be killed in Icelandic waters for the third year running.
2022: Whalers headed out in June to kill fin whales for the first time since 2018. Hopes remain that the cruel practice will end in 2023 after the country’s Fisheries Minister, Svandís Svavarsdóttir cast doubt over its future a few weeks ago, saying that there is now little justification for authorizing whaling.
Minke whaling in Iceland
No minke whales have been killed since the end of the 2018 season and in 2020, the sole minke whaling company, IP-Utgerd, announced that it was closing down. The below information relates to the minke whaling that took place until that date.
History of hunting minke whales in Norway
Minke whale hunts in Icelandic waters did not start into well into the 20th century. Unlike Norwegian whalers, who typically kill hundreds of minke whales each year, the number of minke whales killed by Icelandic whalers this century peaked at 81 in 2009, but has otherwise been below 60, dwindling to 17 in 2017 and 6 in 2018, its final year.
And unlike Iceland’s fin whaling, the number of minke whales killed has always fallen far short of the self-allocated quota (217) which is just as well, since indicators suggest that minke whale numbers in the region have been steadily declining over the past decade or so, with the reasons behind this decline still poorly understood.
Significantly, even scientists at HAFRO, Iceland’s pro-whaling Marine Research Institute, admit that they don’t know enough about the abundance, home range and behaviour of minke whale stocks in Icelandic waters: casting grave doubt on the Icelandic government’s often repeated claim that their whaling is ‘sustainable’.
Who eats minke whale meat?
When commercial whaling resumed in 2006, minke whale meat sold poorly. The Icelandic government has gone to great lengths to develop new products and encourage the public to try whale meat; however, their efforts have largely been unsuccessful and the consumption of minke whale meat by local people has declined steadily year on year.
A 2018 Gallup poll for IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare) found that 84 per cent of Icelanders said they had never eaten whale meat. Only 2 per cent said they had eaten whale meat six times or more a year.
Tourists are getting the message!
Most of the minke whale meat has been consumed by tourists, under the mistaken belief that it is a ‘traditional’ dish. However, a major public awareness campaign by WDC and other NGOs has been very successful in driving down tourist demand. A 2009 Gallup survey for IFAW found that 40% of tourists surveyed admitted to sampling whale meat in Iceland: by 2015, this figure had fallen to 18% and by 2017, had dropped still further to 11.4%.
Given that over 2.3 million tourists visited Iceland in 2018 and a further 2 million in 2019, it remains incredibly important to reach tourists with the message that whale meat is neither traditional nor a popular dish locally.
Minke whale imports
Shockingly, Iceland can legally import (or export) minke whale meat with Norway under their respective ‘reservations’ to CITES regulations: regulations which are respected by the vast majority of other countries.
For example, in March 2020, a shipment of 1,224kg of frozen whale meat imported from Norway was listed on Iceland’s statistical database, Hagstofa. (NB Statistics Norway logs the consignment’s destination as the Faroe Islands, which is not unusual as official paperwork relating to imports and exports is often vague or incorrect). [Source: Animal Welfare Institute]
Minke whale exports
The Faroe Islands has no CITES legislation in place, and regularly imports whale meat from Iceland and Norway. In 2006, 2008 and 2010, shipments of Icelandic minke whale meat with a total weight of almost 100 tonnes were exported to the Faroe Islands. In 2010, 25 kilos of minke whale meat were also shipped to Latvia, in violation of CITES and European Union laws. [Source: Animal Welfare Institute]
Help us end whaling in Iceland for good!
At times, the battle to end whaling can seem interminable and the obstacles overwhelming. But we have already had many successes in this campaign and with your support, we will fight on until whales in Icelandic waters are safe and free.
We will maximise our efforts, working closely with like-minded groups. Here’s just a few of our recent successes:
- We helped coordinate huge protests against the transit of fin whale meat through EU ports, including Rotterdam and Hamburg. In 2013, an Avaaz petition with a million signatures helped see a shipment returned to Iceland. We were delighted when the two shipping companies involved, Evergreen Line and Samskip, swore off carrying whale meat again.
- Tourist outreach campaigns have seen the percentage of tourists sampling whale meat fall from 40% in 2009 to 11% in 2017.
- We persuaded retailers - including the giant Findus Group - to put HB Grandi fish on their blacklist due to close links with fin whaling.
- We exposed the sale of fin whale ‘jerky’ dog treats in Asia and persuaded one supplier, Michinoku Farms, to abandon the product.
Uses for whale meat in Iceland
Fin whale jerky dog treats
For many years, surplus whale meat from Japan’s domestic hunts has been offloaded in pet food, but in May 2013, WDC and other NGOs exposed the sale of Icelandic fin whale ‘jerky’ dog treats in Asia, including via Rakuten and other massive Japanese e-commerce websites. One Japanese company, Michinoku Farms, marketed the meat as a ‘low calorie, low fat, high protein snack’ targeting affluent pet owners. Our campaign quickly persuaded Michinoku Farms to drop the product.
At the time, we commented: “Sadly, this discovery does not surprise us. Turning beautiful and endangered fin whales into pet treats is utterly repugnant to right-minded people. Yet, this is no more than we have come to expect from Kristjan Loftsson, a man prepared to turn whales into pretty much anything as long as it turns a profit.”
Since January 2014, Iceland’s Stedji brewery has produced an annual ‘whale beer’ launched to coincide with the midwinter festival of Thorrablot. Despite the fact that most drinkers gave previous whale beers a definite ‘thumbs down’ on taste grounds, the brewery doggedly persists in its efforts to convince tourists that they really DO want to drink a beer brewed with sheep dung-smoked fin whale testicles. In 2018, the brewery boasted that this year’s offering “is brewed with whale testicle that has been cured with kambucha … making it good for the digestion.”
WDC says: “This obscene use of the intimate body parts of a beautiful, endangered whale is on a par with ashtrays made from gorilla palms, stools made from elephant feet or dried tiger penis as an aphrodisiac.”
In February 2013, fin whaler Kristjan Loftsson boasted that he was rendering down fin whales and using their oil as a ’bio fuel’ (an 80% diesel / 20% whale oil mix) to power his whaling vessels.
Bizarrely - and surely indicating desperation - in 2018, Hvalur announced that it is ‘considering the possibilities’ of using dried whale meat extract in iron supplements for people suffering from anaemia. The company claimed to be collaborating with researchers at the Iceland Innovation Centre and the University of Iceland and is also reportedly considering the use of gelatine, extracted from whale bones in a range of other “foods and medicines”. Hvalur hf. cited this new marketing direction as justification for resuming the hunt of endangered fin whales for commercial purposes but it is also likely to be a move dictated by recent difficulties in exporting fin whale products to Japan.
WDC says: “This really is a paper-thin excuse to keep fin whaling alive. There is no justification for killing an endangered species for any reason, let alone in the name of ‘medicine.’ These whales often die in agony, and for what? A quack supplement with no proven benefit or safety record?”
Seafood linked to fin whaling? No thank you!
WDC and other NGOs ran a successful campaign to expose the strong links between fin whaling and Icelandic seafood giant, HB Grandi. Until early May 2018, Hvalur boss, Kristjan Loftsson, was chair of the HB Grandi board and Grandi has previously allowed the whalers to process fin whales at their premises.
Our campaign really resonated with consumers, with surveys showing that over 90% would avoid purchasing seafood linked with whaling. We also received huge support from major household names, including Tesco, Waitrose, Marks & Spencer and Asda, which audited their supply chains to ensure that they weren’t purchasing from HB Grandi.
Our investigations revealed that a large proportion of the Grandi fish exported to the UK was sold by fish and chip shops and we were delighted to receive support from an industry which sells a staggering £1.2 billion worth of fish and chips annually!
The announcement that fin whaling would resume in 2018 made the link with whaling too much of a ‘’hot potato’ for Grandi’s marketing department to stomach and shares owned by Hvalur-linked companies were sold to Brim, another Icelandic seafood giant.