Will Trump and Trudeau oversee the extinction of critically endangered North Atlantic right whales?
1 August 2017 - 8:25pm
UPDATE: The tragedy continues. Just hours after this blog was originally posted on August 1, 2017, we were alerted to the discovery of yet another dead right whale in Canadian waters and have updated the blog. On August 6, a right whale carcass was found floating off the coast of Martha's Vineyard, MA -the current death toll since April is now 12 animals.
The unprecedented loss of at least 12 endangered North Atlantic right whales since April is cause for alarm as these deaths comprise over 2% of the entire species of which fewer than 500 remain. In human terms, a similar loss would mean the deaths of more than 150 million people in a matter of weeks – that would be nearly half of the entire US population.
Most frightening is that 10 of these whales died in a two month period in Atlantic Canada, a newly emerging summer habitat for NA right whales where no substantive management measures to protect these whales currently exist. While not all carcasses have been examined, those that were point to human caused threats, specifically entanglements in fishing gear and ship strikes.
The Canadian Crisis
During the first week of June, Canada’s Marine Animal Response Society received a report of a dead right whale in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada. The search for that whale led to finding several more floating carcasses. By the end of June, seven dead right whales had been identified in the area with two additional deaths documented in July and an additional carcass reported on August 1st.
Only three of the whales were able to be towed to shore to be necropsied (animal autopsy) to determine the cause of their deaths. Two of the whales had injuries consistent with “blunt force trauma” (ship strikes) and one whale died as a result of a chronic entanglement in fishing gear.
At the same time, at least four additional right whales were reported entangled in fishing gear in the area, including a whale whose disentanglement resulted in the tragic death of Joe Howlett, a trained member of the Campobello Whale Rescue Team.
While Canada has implemented management measures to protect this species, including the designation of critical habitat and modifications of shipping lanes, these efforts have been focused in the Bay of Fundy (blue circle), an historic habitat for right whales. However, there are no comparable measures in place in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (yellow circle), an emerging Canadian habitat for this species. Furthermore, unlike the United States, Canada has not required modifications or restrictions on fishing gear to reduce the risk of entanglement to right whales.
In recent years, right whales have shifted their habitats, likely due to changing ocean temperatures which affect copepods, the preferred prey for right whales. Along with a number of other cold water species, these tiny zooplankton have been shifting further north as the waters warm in the Gulf of Maine.
Economics versus Conservation in a Changing Climate
Catastrophically, copepods and right whales have found a new summer home in a place designated as management Area 12, an area with a large fishery for Canadian snow crabs in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) did close the snow crab fishery in Area 12 in response to right whale deaths and entanglements, but it only did so after the confirmed death of an 8th right whale and, as mentioned previously, the tragic death of a disentanglement team member. Furthermore, the Area 12 fishery was already slated to end its season by July 28th according to DFO and reportedly had already caught 98% of its quota, leaving one to question whether there was any real conservation benefit to whales from the early closure.
According to research published in 2009, “the snow crab fishery in Atlantic Canada represents the world’s largest snow crab fishery; it accounted for almost 90% of world landings” and is valued at $177 million. In 2012 the Gulf of St. Lawrence snow crab trap fishery was certified as “sustainable” by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) despite numerous concerns raised by WDC, the Humane Society of the United States, and other conservation groups regarding the plight of North Atlantic right whales and the risk posed by fisheries to the species’ continued survival.
As corporations like Whole Foods and Walmart move toward offering customers “sustainable” seafood and choose to sell seafood certified by MSC, it is increasingly important for consumers to question not only whether catching the target seafood species is sustainable, but also what bycatch occurs in that fishery (i.e. what other animals does that fishery kill by mistake?). In this case, a certified “sustainable” fishery may be contributing to the extinction of an endangered species.
Yet, as the body count in Canada mounts, it is unclear what meaningful actions Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his Administration intend to implement to reduce risk. According to a DFO statement released on July 12th, aside from the slightly early closure of the snow crab fishery, only voluntary measures were considered, such as requesting that ships slow down and report whale sightings. As Canada continues to review its options, will it eventually review how its inactions lead toward the extinction of North Atlantic right whales?
Blame Canada? Not so fast---the US adds nails to the right whale extinction coffin.
While the US can take some comfort in its efforts to reduce ship strikes and entanglements in fishing gear, it may not sit smugly by and blame the demise of a species solely on Canada. The actions and inactions by the US are no less lethal than what is happening in Canada as a flood of proposals by the Trump Administration and Congress propose to reduce protections to North Atlantic right whales in US waters.
Only six months ago, the US Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management (at that time operating under the Obama administration), denied six pending permit applications by oil companies for seismic testing along the US East Coast. The intense pulsing sounds created by seismic surveys are emitted every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day for weeks or months at a time and pose a risk to critically endangered North Atlantic right whales. Research shows that man-made noise increases stress hormones in right whales, which can impact their ability to reproduce and impair their immune systems. However, the Trump Administration is seeking to overturn that ban on potentially lethal levels of seismic noise in whale habitat, proposing to approve five permits to use this intense noise source to search for deposits of oil and gas under the ocean floor. These permits put whales and dolphins at risk from the intense noise and—if development proceeds—from future oil spills.
Similarly, the request by the Trump Administration to review the need for 11 currently designated National Marine Sanctuaries and Marine National Monuments on both coasts appears to be motivated by fossil fuel interests that wish access to these protected offshore areas. The areas vulnerable to reconsideration of protections include the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts, the only Marine Monument designated in the Gulf of Maine and a habitat used by North Atlantic right whales and other endangered marine species.
Adding to the potential impacts of these requests, the Trump Administration and Congress have launched multiple attacks on both the Endangered Species (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection (MMPA) Acts. Using misleading titles which seem harmless, the US House of Representatives’ Committee on Natural Resources recently held hearings on the “Endangered Species Litigation Reasonable Act” and on “Saving America’s Endangered Species Act” both of which are actually aimed at weakening protections of the ESA. Another proposed bill with a misleading title is the “Endangered Salmon and Fisheries Predation Prevention Act” which is, in reality, an attempt to amend and weaken the MMPA by allowing up to 1,000 sea lions to be shot for eating fish.
And let us not forget the decision by President Trump to pull out of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, particularly poignant given that the increased risk to right whales in Canadian waters appears to be a direct result of their shifted habitat use in response to warming oceans due to climate change.
Why Should We Care?
In the simplest terms, humans need whales. Whales play a role in helping to create a healthy ocean ecosystem on which we rely to breathe, to eat, and to fight climate change. Emerging research underscores the critical role North Atlantic right whales play in the ecosystem by providing key nutrients for phytoplankton, which in turn produce most of the world’s oxygen and are the base on which fish stocks depend. Data supporting the direct link between healthy whale populations in the fight against climate change continue to grow. Researchers have found the role of whales so significant that they concluded that the “full recovery from one serious anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems, namely the dramatic depletion of whale populations, can help to counter the impacts of another now underway—the decline in nutrients for phytoplankton growth caused by ocean warming.”
In simpler terms, allowing whale populations to recover can help fight climate change.
What WDC is Doing
Since its incorporation in 2005, WDC’s North American office has implemented a program specifically dedicated to the continued survival of the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale. Because of the scientific and policy expertise of the staff of WDC-NA, we are able to provide input to legal counsel who help us ensure compliance with federal laws, and to federal managers we have advised on issues specific to reducing ship strikes, entanglements, and habitat degradation.
As a federally appointed member of the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Team, WDC is continuing its work to devise measures that reduce the risk of entanglements. We will continue to conduct evaluations of necropsy and stranding data, perform annual reviews of NOAA’s draft Stock Assessment Reports, and provide data on adverse human interactions to the Atlantic Scientific Review Group, ensuring that impacts to the species are adequately assessed and their impacts fully considered.
We also work as part of a coalition of conservation and animal welfare groups fighting to ensure the integrity of US legislation:
- Working to preserve the MMPA and ESA.
- Working to ensure that federal budgets for right whale surveys, entanglement response and stranding response are not gutted by self-interested parties.
- Opposing unrestrained seismic testing along the US East Coast.
- Opposing federal permits which would allow harmful activities in right whale habitat.
- Responding to all Federal Register notices on issues that may impact right whales and other species.
And in response to the recent deaths of right whales in Canada, we will formally request that the MSC certification of the snow crab fishery be withdrawn as a result of its threat to the continued survival of right whales. Where whales need protection, be assured that WDC will be there to fight for them!
What you can do
Support our work. Your donation, large or small, has an impact. Not only does your donation provide critical funding to support our work, but it is through your donation that we can count you among our supporters as we ask federal officials to protect whales on your behalf.
Use your words. Tell the US Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management that you oppose seismic testing along the US East Coast. Let them know that the noise generated by seismic testing can impact the recovery of right whales by reducing their ability to reproduce and lowering their immune system. (NOTE: comments must be submitted by August 17th).
Say No to Canadian snow crab until Canada implements regulatory measures that adequately reduce the risk of entanglement to North Atlantic right whales.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Refuse. The very real issue of a changing climate is putting right whales at risk as they move to new habitats where protective regulations do not exist. Your simple efforts to reduce/reuse/recycle/refuse plastics and conserve your energy consumption is a simple and effective way to make a difference.
Including the right whale killed by a ship strike in Cape Cod this past April and a second carcass found of Massachusetts in August, we have now lost 12 right whales in a year where only five calves were born. Only 20 years ago, over 500 vaquitas (a species of porpoise) swam in the Gulf of California but today only 30 remain because of human impacts. The fate of North Atlantic right whales over the next 20 years is in our hands and it is not too late to save them, but we need to act right now.